1、如Julie Mossler，公司公关说明公司的快速增长部分归功于公司对消费者行为的理解，并指出价格是人们使用Groupon反复订阅Groupon的激活点，此外人们还担心与优质商家合作并获得在别处无法获得的体验。此外，她解释说，Groupon 的快速增长也是公司解决问题的能力，与当地客户互动并将其转化为实际销售的结果。
购买服务或商品可能涉及产品性能不令人满意的风险，称为感知风险。更高的感知风险通常会导致对信息搜索的更高依赖，并使购买前的决策过程更加困难。 Groupon 承诺可以降低消费者可能考虑的感知风险，即使他们做出了错误的选择，他们也总能得到回报。
此外，Groupon Promise 可以帮助减少购买后的不和谐，即决定购买时的不确定性或焦虑（Hawkins & Mothersbaugh，1998），因为 Groupon Promise 保证在客户感到遗憾时在某些情况下可以退货。
3. 一个典型的 Groupon 用户的五阶段购买决策过程将涉及以下五个阶段：
首先，问题识别是第一阶段，可以将其定义为消费者期望状态与足以触发决策过程的感知实际状态之间的差异（Hawkins & Mothersbaugh，1998）。 Groupon 用户可能会被订阅的电子邮件唤醒，这些电子邮件通知用户今天的最佳优惠、当日交易和某些产品的折扣代码。他们也可能由朋友通过 Facebook 或 Twitter 推荐而触发。 Groupon Now 是一款智能手机应用程序，它可以让消费者了解附近的优惠活动，这也可能引发问题识别。
其次，信息搜索是在识别出某个问题或机会后的下一阶段，他们可以根据长期记忆中的知识来决定报价是否有价值，这种信息搜索称为内部搜索。此外，消费者可以使用外部搜索（例如个人资源、基于市场的信息）来确定他们是否应该接受报价。例如，他们可能会将 Groupon 中的优惠券与他们的竞争对手（例如 woot 或 Google 的报价）进行比较以决定，或者他们可能会与他们的朋友讨论。
第三，替代评估包括评估标准、标准的重要性和考虑的替代方案。评估标准是消费者在响应诸如报价、商家质量和交易时间限制等公认问题时期望的若干特征、维度或利益。消费者然后为每个标准分配权重，并决定与 Woot 等竞争对手相比，Groupon 的交易表现如何。价格可能是大多数消费者最关心的问题。
最后，最后一步是购买后评估。交易确认后消费者可以使用优惠而不使用优惠，使用优惠的人可能满意或不满意，不满意的消费者可以采取退货、停止使用Groupon、参与等行动在负面口碑中，向他们的朋友抱怨，或者他们可能不采取任何行动，但将来可能不太可能使用 Groupon (Hawkins & Mothersbaugh, 1998)。
4. 心理影响将是一个人的感知、学习、记忆、动机、个性、情绪和态度（Hawkins & Mothersbaugh，1998）。例如，用户可能有刺激的需求，当被 Groupon 通知有新活动时，可能会引发冲动购买。社会学影响可能是文化、亚文化、人口统计、社会地位、参考群体、家庭和营销活动 ((Hawkins & Mothersbaugh, 1998)。例如，当经济不景气时，人们的家庭收入可能会减少，特别是为了不必要的产品，因此人们更有可能购买服务中的产品或服务，因此他们会使用 Groupon。
5. Groupon面临的一个挑战是Groupon交易确认后消费者不会使用该交易。如果产品在购买后不使用，消费者会对产品表现出不太友好的态度。1、As Julie Mossler, the PR of the company illustrated that the company’s fast growth can be attributed partly to the company’ understanding of consumer behavior and pointed out that price was the activation point that people would subscribe with Groupon repeatedly using Groupon, in addition people are also concerned about working with quality merchant and having an experience that they cannot get elsewhere. Moreover, she explained that the rapid growing of Groupon is also as a result of the company’s ability to solve the problem to engage with local customers and turn it into real term sales.
2、The Groupon Promise is the promises that at any time Groupon disappoints its users or the merchant does not provide with what they say they will, the customers can get a refund without a question.
The buying of a service or a good may involve risk that the performance of the product is not satisfactory which is referred as perceived risk. Higher perceived risk will typically result in higher reliance of information search and make the decision process prior to purchase more difficult. The Groupon Promises can reduce the perceived risk as the consumers may consider even if they make a poor choice, they can always get a return.
Moreover, Groupon Promise can help to reduce post purchase dissonance which is the uncertainty or anxiety when deciding to make a purchase (Hawkins & Mothersbaugh,1998) because Groupon Promise guarantee the customer of return policy under certain circumstances when they feel regretted.
3. The five-stage purchase decision process for a typical Groupon user would involve the following five stages:
First, problem recognition is the first stage which can be defined as the difference between a consumers desired state and perceived actual state which is adequate enough to trigger the decision process (Hawkins & Mothersbaugh,1998). The Groupon user may be aroused by the subscribed emails which inform the user today’s best offer, deal-of-the-day and discount codes of certain products. They may also be triggered by their friends’ referral through Facebook or twitter. Groupon Now is a smartphone app which can make the consumers aware of the great deals nearby which could also trigger problem recognition.
Secondly, information search is the next stage after a certain problem or opportunity is recognized that they may base on knowledge from their long-term memory to decide if the offer is valuable, this kind of information search is called internal search. Also, a consumer may use external search such as personal sources, market-based information to determine whether they should take the offer. For example, they may compare the coupons in Groupon with their competitors such as woot or Google’s offer to decide or they may discuss with their friends.
Thirdly, Alternative Evaluation consists of evaluative criteria, importance of criteria and alternatives considered. The evaluative criteria are several characteristics, dimensions or benefits the consumer expect for in response to a recognized problem such as the price of the offer, the quality of the merchant and the time restricts of the deal. The consumer than assign weight to each criterion and decide how Groupon’s deal perform compared with competitors like Woot. Price may be the top concern for most consumers.
Fourthly, the purchase decision would be made when the deal is acceptable by the consumer then he would enter the name and credit card online and will only be charged when the enough people join for the deal to be activated.
Finally, the last step is post purchase evaluation. After the deal is confirmed the consumer may use the offer on not use the offer, and those who use the offer may be satisfied or dissatisfied, and the consumers who are dissatisfied may take action such as get a return, stop using Groupon anymore, engage in negative Word of Mouth, complain to their friends, or they may take no action but may be less likely to use Groupon in the future (Hawkins & Mothersbaugh,1998).
4. The psychological influences would be perception, learning, memory, motives, personality, emotions and attitudes of a person (Hawkins & Mothersbaugh,1998). For example, a user may have the need for Stimulation and when is informed of a new activity by Groupon and may trigger impulsive purchasing. The sociological influences may be culture, subculture, demographics, social status, reference groups, family and marketing activities ((Hawkins & Mothersbaugh,1998). For example, when the economy is not well, people may have less household income to spend especially for unnecessary products, hence people are more likely to buy products or services which are at services hence they would use Groupon.
5. One challenge Groupon faces is that after the Groupon deal is confirmed the consumers would not use the deal. If the product is not use post purchase, consumers would show a less favorable attitudes towards the business and the merchant doesn’t make profits. Therefore, Groupon should send alert message to users who haven’t used their vouchers to use the voucher promptly.
The other challenge for Groupon is the growth rate of Groupon. Groupon has been the most fast-growing business and has expanded in to Europe and some other countries, however most of the users subscribed are still American users and most of the offers are still sold in US. It is recommended that Groupon should continually make effort to understand consumers’ purchasing behavior from an international perspective. Groupon should also make attempts to work with business overseas and provide more deals outside US.
Hawkins, D. I., Mothersbaugh, D. L (1998). Consumer Behavior: Building Marketing Strategy 10/e. McGraw-Hill.